The magnetization of the coating of the discs is the actual information carrier. It is generated by the write head in circular concentric tracks, while the disk rotates. A disk typically includes several thousands of such traces, usually on both sides. The totality of all the same, that is located above the other tracks of the individual plates (surface) is called cylinder.

Each track is divided into smaller logical units called blocks. Traditionally a block contains 512 bytes of user data. Each block in this case has control information (checksum), is about to ensure that the information has been correctly written or read. The totality of all the blocks, which have the same angular coordinates on the plates is called sector. The construction of a special type of hard drive, ie the number of tracks, surfaces and sectors is called a disk geometry. The term sector is incorrectly often used interchangeably by block.

As the numbering of the blocks with increasing disk capacities, the word boundary (16 bit) exceeded – some operating systems pushed to their limits early, led to a cluster. These are groups of a fixed number of blocks (eg, 32), which are usefully physically adjacent. The operating system no longer responds to individual blocks, but used on its (higher) level as the smallest allocation unit this cluster. Only to hardware driver level this relationship is dissolved as shown by Laptop Repair Sydney.

The disk controller can hide bad blocks in the so-called hot-fix area, then display a block from a reserve area. The computer then it always seems as if all blocks were defect-free and usable. This process can, however, by S.M.A.R.T. understand the Reallocated Sector Count parameter.

This step involves the generation of an object file for each file in assembler code. These object files are in machine language. This is a binary format, depending on the processor.
The object files are usually Unix or Linux extensions, or development tools for Microsoft platforms, Intel, Digital, IBM, DOS, Windows, VMS, CP / M where extensions occur usually in the form of three characters.

This phase is sometimes combined with the previous one (by establishing a flow of internal data files without using intermediate language or assembly language), in this case the compiler directly generates a binary object file. For compilers that generate intermediate code, the assembly phase can also be completely removed: the virtual machine (linked to final program).

Or used separately as a loader program to run on a shared virtual machine and optimized specifically on the host machine that interpret or compile this language into native machine code directly on the host machine as part of Laptop Repair Sydney.